With the increased computing power of modern computers over the last decades, (numerical) simulation has become firmly established as the "third pillar" of knowledge acquisition alongside theory and experiment. Simulation is used to predict and analyse complex (physical) relationships, which is carried out on the computer and can thus be repeated as often as desired. Simulation is always advantageous when experiments are too complex (i.e. too expensive and/or too time-consuming), cannot be carried out (e.g. supernovae) or should not be carried out (e.g. avalanches). Typical fields of application of simulations are, for example, flow simulations for predicting floods or the spread of pollutants/viruses, people flow simulations for proving the escape of buildings in fire or danger situations, and biomechanical simulations for predicting material wear on bones and vertebrae. Due to the computational complexity involved, many problems can only be solved by using high-performance computing (i.e. parallelisation), so that simulation and high-performance computing form a solid unit.
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