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  • 2021

  • Aeschlimann, Lukas Fabian; Berweger, Yves Robin; Wittmer, Andreas (2021): Überblick über neue Antriebssysteme und Technologien von Flugzeugen. Zürich: Dike Verlag (CFAC - Schriften zur Luftfahrt)

    Abstract: Die Luftfahrt trägt 2 bis 3 Prozent am globalen CO2-Ausstoss durch die Verbrennung von fossilen Treibstoffen bei. Der Klimawandel, steigende Rohölpreise und CO2-Kompensationen drängen die Aviatik zu technischen Veränderungen. Diese Arbeit setzt sich mit der Analyse neuer Antriebssysteme und Technologien auseinander. Sie analysiert die aktuell verbauten Technologien, leitet daraus verschiedene Baselines ab und vergleicht diese mit den neuesten Technologien. Mittels einer Multi-Criteria-Decision-Analyse werden die Antriebssysteme auf ihr Marktpotential hin bewertet. Dabei werden ökonomische, ökologische, technische, soziale und politische Faktoren aus der Perspektive von drei Anspruchsgruppen berücksichtigt: Fluggesellschaften, Flugzeug- und Triebwerkshersteller. Die Ergebnisse deuten darauf hin, dass die Varianten «Super-conducting motors and generators», «Hybrid electric parallel» und «Hybrid electric partial» die grössten Chancen haben, sich im Markt durchzusetzen.

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  • Boksberger, Philipp; Müller, Roland; Wittmer, Andreas (2021) : The Holy Grail of Aviation. Risk, Safety and Security In: Wittmer, Andreas; Bieger, Thomas; Müller, Roland (Hg.): Aviation Systems: Management of the Integrated Aviation Value Chain: Second Edition: Berlin: Springer (Classroom Companion: Business), S. 335-354. Online verfügbar unter https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-79549-8_11, zuletzt geprüft am 22.10.2021

     

    Abstract: Risk, safety and security are vital structural conditions to conduct safe and smooth air transportation. The concept of risk is multidimensional and its perception differs among passengers. To ensure the safety and security in aviation, measures are set up on global, regional and local scales. This chapter presents new approaches in the aviation system that manage risk, safety and security. On a regulatory level, safety management systems (SMS) are mandated by ICAO for all players within the aviation industry. However, an SMS needs to be accompanied by a safety culture that embraces the values needed for the SMS to succeed in identifying and rectifying problems. Therefore, important aspects surrounding an encouraging safety culture need to be considered.

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  • Boksberger, Philipp; Wittmer, Andreas; Müller, Adrian (2021) : Passenger Behaviouristics In: Wittmer, Andreas; Bieger, Thomas; Müller, Roland (Hg.): Aviation Systems: Management of the Integrated Aviation Value Chain: Second Edition: Berlin: Springer (Classroom Companion: Business), S. 283-302. Online verfügbar unter https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-79549-8_9, zuletzt geprüft am 22.10.2021

     

    Abstract: In this chapter, the concept of passenger behaviour is explained using different decision theories while showing how the knowledge is applied in the industry. Passenger behaviour is synonymous for the study of how passengers think, feel, select and use products and services within air travel, i.e. their behaviour. Aviation decision making explains the passenger’s choice of air travel and predicts their future travel intentions. However, some of the theories presented also go on to explain why some passenger decisions are not utility maximising and rationally explainable. Therefore, it is essential for airlines and airports to understand these passenger behaviours and improve their products, services and marketing accordingly. After all, understanding and meeting passenger requirements ensure that companies in the aviation industry stay profitable in the long run.

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  • Müller, Adrian; Wittmer, Andreas (2021): The end of international business air travel?. Pandemics, climate change, and the need to meet. 70th AIEST Conference. Luzern, 1. September, 2021

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  • Müller, Roland; Wittmer, Andreas (2021) : Risk Management in Aviation In: Wittmer, Andreas; Bieger, Thomas; Müller, Roland (Hg.): Aviation Systems: Management of the Integrated Aviation Value Chain: Second Edition: Berlin: Springer (Classroom Companion: Business), S. 387-402. Online verfügbar unter https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-79549-8_13, zuletzt geprüft am 22.10.2021

     

    Abstract: Risk Management is a process based on the systematic collection and analysis of all relevant risks facing a company. Risks are particularly present in the aviation industry, and therefore necessitates a special emphasis on a comprehensive Risk Management. The quality of Risk Management is shaped by the enterprise culture and starts at a board level. By integrating a Safety Management System, the operational area of Corporate Risk Management can be further improved. It is important to realise that Risk Management is opportunity management too, where potential improvements need to be actively identified. For aviation companies it makes sense to take out a Director’s and Officer’s Insurance (D&O) to insure the management against any financial liabilities resulting from damage claims. However, these are expensive and require a time-consuming evaluation.

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  • Müller, Adrian; Wittmer, Andreas (2021) : The end of international business air travel?. Pandemics, climate change, and the need to meet: 24th ATRS World Conference: Air Transport Research Society (ATRS): Online, 26.-29. August. University of New South Wales

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  • Puls, René; Wittmer, Andreas (2021) : Managing Airports In: Wittmer, Andreas; Bieger, Thomas; Müller, Roland (Hg.): Aviation Systems: Management of the Integrated Aviation Value Chain: Second Edition: Berlin: Springer (Classroom Companion: Business), S. 225-249. Online verfügbar unter https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-79549-8_7, zuletzt geprüft am 22.10.2021

     

    Abstract: This chapter presents the basics of airport management. Airports are embedded within the aviation value chain by providing key infrastructure to handle flights. This infrastructure can be designed and adjusted in order to cater for different use cases, which are presented in the chapter. Furthermore, the profitability of an airport consists of different revenues that an airport earns to cover its different expenses. In order to stay competitive, it is imperative that airports adjust their service offerings to their consumers’ preferences. However, airports need to act beyond their daily operations by collaborating with different stakeholders who are part of the airport ecosystem and thus influence it. The chapter signifies the importance of this collaboration by exemplifying the economic and political importance of airports as well as the commercial aspects in terms of attracting passenger and airlines.

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  • Wittmer, Andreas (2021) : Systemrelevanz der Schweizer Luftfahrt In: Geiser, Thomas; Hilb, Martin; Pärli, Kurt; Stengel, Manuel; Wittmer, Andreas (Hg.): Ein Kunstflug durch das Recht und die Governance: Festschrift zum 65. Geburtstag von Roland Müller: Zürich: Dike Verlag, S. 145-152

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  • Wittmer, Andreas; Bieger, Thomas (2021) : Fundamentals and Structure of Aviation Systems In: Wittmer, Andreas; Bieger, Thomas; Müller, Roland (Hg.): Aviation Systems: Management of the Integrated Aviation Value Chain: Second Edition: Berlin: Springer (Classroom Companion: Business), S. 39-78. Online verfügbar unter https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-79549-8_2, zuletzt geprüft am 22.10.2021

     

    Abstract: The history of aviation and the dream of flight dates back many centuries and includes pioneers such as Leonardo da Vinci, Otto Lilienthal and the Wright Brothers, who contributed to this quest. The last century brought along a remarkable growth of the aviation sector and resulted in considerable economic importance of the industry. The aviation industry can be projected along the aviation value chain and comes with its own special characteristics. Whilst aviation creates a high value for customers and other stakeholders, the profit margins are typically low due to high fixed costs and its dependence on external factors. The benefits of aviation to the economy as well as other drivers create positive effects for many stakeholders who are directly or indirectly involved in the system. The aviation system is surrounded by different environments: the economic, ecological, social, technological and political environments. Each environment exerts influence on the aviation system and is simultaneously affected by it.

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  • Wittmer, Andreas; Bieger, Thomas (2021) : Demand and Marketing in Aviation In: Wittmer, Andreas; Bieger, Thomas; Müller, Roland (Hg.): Aviation Systems: Management of the Integrated Aviation Value Chain: Second Edition: Berlin: Springer (Classroom Companion: Business), S. 251-282. Online verfügbar unter https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-79549-8_8, zuletzt geprüft am 22.10.2021

     

    Abstract: Marketing instruments are used to influence the buying behaviour of passengers and, therefore, vary between the different segments. In terms of aviation, aspects such as product service, customer relation management, brand, pricing and distribution are important marketing instruments. The service quality consists of the seat quality and the seamless service encountered by the passenger throughout the entire journey from booking until after the arrival. In a consecutive step, the concept of customer value is explained and applied to the aviation industry. Branding is also an important marketing instrument that is seeing a change from single brands to a portfolio of different brands, especially within airline groups. Furthermore, the concepts of distribution and pricing from previous chapters are embedded as additional marketing instruments for airlines. The bases of pricing are determined by specific market segments and situational readiness to pay, which airlines use to determine their dynamic prices and implement price discrimination.

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  • Wittmer, Andreas; Bieger, Thomas (2021) : Airline Strategy. From Network Management to Business Models In: Wittmer, Andreas; Bieger, Thomas; Müller, Roland (Hg.): Aviation Systems: Management of the Integrated Aviation Value Chain: Second Edition: Berlin: Springer (Classroom Companion: Business), S. 139-184. Online verfügbar unter https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-79549-8_5, zuletzt geprüft am 22.10.2021

     

    Abstract: The core product of all airlines is rather homogenous as in selling a seat on a flight between two airports. Therefore, the only protectable strategic resources of an airline are its brand, the customer basis and its position at a hub airport. The core of its operations is shaped by its network meaning that network management is crucial. This chapter shows the different strategies as well as their typologies including point-to-point or hub-and-and-spoke. The different strategies mainly rely on network effects and are shaped by many variables. These can also be complemented by cooperation such as alliances or codeshares. Furthermore, the application of network effects creates additional value for customers which helps differentiate business models and in turn shapes the different airlines’ concepts.

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  • Wittmer, Andreas; Bieger, Thomas (2021) : From the Aviation Value Chain to the Aviation System In: Wittmer, Andreas; Bieger, Thomas; Müller, Roland (Hg.): Aviation Systems: Management of the Integrated Aviation Value Chain: Second Edition: Berlin: Springer (Classroom Companion: Business), S. 119-138. Online verfügbar unter https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-79549-8_4, zuletzt geprüft am 22.10.2021

     

    Abstract: The aviation value chain is made up of different sub-industries that range from aircraft manufacturers over technical support to airlines. Each of these sub-industries face different pull and push effects which are interdependent and influence their decisions and actions. Coupled with the interrelations of the different spheres within the aviation value system, and the market environment, a system approach is useful to map the aviation industry. Each sub-industry faces different degrees of profitability which depend on the entry barriers and the natural market power. This explains why airlines see narrower profit margins while airports or leasing companies face higher profits.

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  • Wittmer, Andreas; Müller, Adrian (2021) : New Frontiers in Aviation. Supersonic, Space Travel and Drones In: Wittmer, Andreas; Bieger, Thomas; Müller, Roland (Hg.): Aviation Systems: Management of the Integrated Aviation Value Chain: Second Edition: Berlin: Springer (Classroom Companion: Business), S. 447-473. Online verfügbar unter https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-79549-8_16, zuletzt geprüft am 22.10.2021

     

    Abstract: This chapter addresses three areas of future technologies in aviation: supersonic aircraft, space tourism and drone technologies. Supersonic travel is not entirely novel to aviation as its roots begin in the 1960s and continued until to the turn of the millennium. However, new avenues are being explored to develop and re-introduce the concept of supersonic travel. Space tourism is a potential new market for travellers, with first companies already trialling products. However, the technological implementation and the price of space travel are uncertain. Meanwhile, the prospects of drones are promising with many fields offering potential applications of drones. One of the areas is passenger transport, where drones could help transform urban and intercity transport with drone taxis. Again, there are certain obstacles to be cleared, especially in terms of trust, before drones can be deployed for passenger transport.

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  • Wittmer, Andreas; Linden, Erik (2021) : The Future of Mobility. Trends That Will Shape the Mobility and Aviation Industry in the Future In: Wittmer, Andreas; Bieger, Thomas; Müller, Roland (Hg.): Aviation Systems: Management of the Integrated Aviation Value Chain: Second Edition: Berlin: Springer (Classroom Companion: Business), S. 1-38. Online verfügbar unter https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-79549-8_1, zuletzt geprüft am 22.10.2021

     

    Abstract: Mobility is set to change in the future and this chapter maps these changes as well as the potential outcomes. It starts by exploring giga- and megatrends that will influence and shape the future of mobility. Technical innovations around autonomous vehicles, sustainability and mobility sharing will form part of the change in the mobility system. Although the shape and impact of these phenomena will differ across different geographical regions, they will have a global impact. The impact of these trends will shape the supply and demand sides of our economy. It is recommended that decision makers and other important stakeholders follow a culture of openness towards the dynamic changes that are brought by the different trends. Furthermore, certainty and uncertainty are standard factors that should be accounted for when working with these trends.

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  • Wittmer, Andreas; Müller, Adrian (2021) : The Environment of Aviation In: Wittmer, Andreas; Bieger, Thomas; Müller, Roland (Hg.): Aviation Systems: Management of the Integrated Aviation Value Chain: Second Edition: Berlin: Springer (Classroom Companion: Business), S. 79-117. Online verfügbar unter https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-79549-8_3, zuletzt geprüft am 22.10.2021

     

    Abstract: Politics have a considerable impact on the aviation industry, which again depends on politics itself. This ranges from conventions concerning air traffic rights to regulatory affairs that govern aspects such as safety or market conditions. Beyond the political sphere, technology has provided a major boost to innovations and developments in the aviation industry, thus improving the economic and ecologic efficiency of air travel. From an economic perspective, aviation creates considerable economic effects, may it be directly at the airports or beyond the aviation system. Aviation has also shaped our society by raising living standards and promoting cultural understanding. Nevertheless, the environmental impacts of aviation, such as pollution and noise, cannot be neglected and will provide an important topic for the years to come.

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  • Wittmer, Andreas; Roth, Mark (2021) : Human Factors in Aviation In: Wittmer, Andreas; Bieger, Thomas; Müller, Roland (Hg.): Aviation Systems: Management of the Integrated Aviation Value Chain: Second Edition: Berlin: Springer (Classroom Companion: Business), S. 355-386. Online verfügbar unter https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-79549-8_12, zuletzt geprüft am 22.10.2021

     

    Abstract: In the field of human factors, errors and accidents in workplaces are analysed and explained using different models. The aim of human factors is to understand the roots of accidents. This includes analysing interactions between humans and other humans or humans and machines, as well as environments that can prevent or at least minimise human error. The culture hereby presents an important aspect with a considerable influence on human factors. Many aspects such as business, industry or nationality can influence culture, whereby the latter is especially important for multi-national organisations such as airlines. Airlines implement a wide array of measures to prevent human errors such as Crew Resource Management or standardised communication as part of standard operating procedures (SOPs). These measures are complemented by a “Just Culture” promoting integrity and collective learning to further minimise human errors.

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  • 2020

  • Eberhardt, Stephan; Linden, Erik; Wittmer, Andreas (2020) : Drohnen als Lufttaxis. Ein neues Transportmittel für Personen In: Laesser, Christian; Bieger, Thomas; Axhausen, Kay W. (Hg.): Schweizer Jahrbuch für Verkehr 2020. Universität St. Gallen. Institut für Systemisches Management und Public Governance; Schweizerische Verkehrswissenschaftliche Gesellschaft: St. Gallen (Schweizer Jahrbuch für Verkehr), S. 7-23

    Abstract: Die Einführung von autonomen Lufttaxis (autonomous vertical take-off and landing aircraft, AVTOL) hat das Potenzial, eine neue Art des Personentransports zu prägen und eine sinnvolle Ergänzung zu bisherigen Verkehrsträgern in der Zukunft darzustellen. Neben der fortschrittlichen Technologie könnten AVTOLs eine Vielzahl an Vorteilen gegenüber anderen Transportmitteln bieten. Je nach AVTOL-Technologie könnten Vorteile zum Beispiel schnelles Reisen, mehr bzw. andere Nutzung von verfügbarer Infrastruktur, mehr produktive Zeit auf der Reise, mehr Sicherheit und mehr Mobilität sein. Dieser Beitrag hat das Ziel, mögliche Szenarien und Anwendungsfälle für den Einsatz von autonomen Lufttaxis zu evaluieren und den Zeitpunkt zu untersuchen, zu dem mit einer Umsetzung gerechnet werden kann. Dazu wird, neben einer Literaturrecherche zur Sichtweise möglicher Anwendungsfälle und deren Umsetzungszeit, eine Delphi-Studie mit Experten durchgeführt. Mit Hilfe der Delphi-Studie wurde ein breit gefächertes Expertenpanel zur Eintrittswahrscheinlich von möglichen Szenarien und Anwendungsfällen sowie zum Zeitpunkt der Umsetzung von AVTOLs befragt. Im Anschluss wurden die Ergebnisse aus der Literaturrecherche mit denen der Delphi-Befragung reflektiert, um eine bessere Vorhersage treffen zu können. Die Wissenschaftlichkeit dieses Beitrags liegt darin, dass auf den bestehenden Studien aufgebaut wird und ein neuer Ansatz im Umgang mit AVTOLs gewählt wird. Die praktische Relevanz dieses Beitrags umfasst die Evaluation möglicher Anwendungsfelder für den Einsatz von AVTOL als Lufttaxis für Personen und deren möglicher Implementierungszeitpunkt.

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  • Merkle, Thorsten; Tajeddini, Kayhan; Wittmer, Andreas (2020): Can the Netflix business model actually work in commercial aviation in central Europe?. It is complicated!. Teaching case study. In: Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Cases (JHTC) 8 (2)

    Abstract: The case discusses SurfAir’s European marketentry. For a flat fee, subscribers can fly on SurfAir’s networkas much as they wish. It describes their entry into the market and the network development, as well as subsequent changes to the business model. While SurfAir initially operated one jet ontheir Zurich-London route, this route was soon discontinued. Instead, SurfAir collaborated with another airline operator offering single seats. A little more than a year after launching their European venture, SurfAir closed their European operations. This case allows to develop an understanding of the reasons why this venture was marked by failure.

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  • Wittmer, Andreas; Hinnen, Gieri; Linden, Erik (2020) : Airline passengers In: Budd, Lucy; Ison, Stephen (Hg.): Air Transport Management: An International Perspective: 2nd Edition: London: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, S. 165-177

    DOI: https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429299445 

    Abstract: This chapter offers an overview of how to segment airline passengers, define customer value, and retain airline passengers. It also underlines the demographic changes and illustrates the influence of ageing passengers on airline operators and the air transport sector. This chapter examines airline alliance loyalty programmes and highlights their benefits from a passenger perspective. It provides an understanding of the essential techniques of airline passenger segmentation and retention and identifies the customer value of airline products as well as understanding the impact of an ageing society on air transport.

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  • 2019

  • Gremion, Emilie; Linden, Erik; Wittmer, Andreas (2019) : An Empirical Analysis of Flight Ticket Purchasing Behavior. Determining Generation Y's Level of Involvement for Different Network Strategies: 23rd ATRS World Conference: Air Transport Research Society (ATRS): Amsterdam, 2.-5. Juli. Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, School of Business & Economics

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  • Klein, Maximilian; Linden, Erik; Wittmer, Andreas (2019): Influence of Marketing Instruments on Consumer Behavior in the Process of Purchasing Leisure Flight Tickets. In: Marketing Review St. Gallen (3), S. 30-38

    Abstract: The article discusses the influence on the process of purchasing leisure flight tickets of different marketing instruments as determinants. It examines the perceived importance of 39 instruments based on an adaptive choice-based conjoint analysis and refers to four different instrument categories that impact the consumer's decision.

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  • Linden, Erik; Wittmer, Andreas; Feltscher, Bettino (2019): A Model for Measuring Airport Competitiveness. The Case of Zurich Airport. In: Jahrbuch Schweizer Luft- und Raumfahrt 3, S. 62-65

    Abstract: Airports play a crucial role in the attractiveness of business locations as so-called transportation hubs. They are necessary to foster commerce activities and to satisfy the commuting needs of the modern population. Unfortunately, they also cause various damages such as air pollution and noise. This leads to a trade-off between growth and damage to the population.

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  • Linden, Erik; Wittmer, Andreas (2019): Luftfahrtforschung und -weiterbildung. Wo steht die Schweiz heute?. In: Jahrbuch Schweizer Luft- und Raumfahrt 3, S. 34-37

    Abstract: Bildung und vor allem die Weiterbildung von Fachkräften ist nicht nur für die Schweizer Luftfahrtindustrie eine treibende Kraft, sondern für die gesamte Schweizer Volkswirtschaft. Deshalb führt das Center for Aviation Competence der Universität St. Gallen (CFAC-HSG)Luftfahrtforschung durch und bietet Weiterbildungen in Aviation Management an.

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  • Linden, Erik; Wittmer, Andreas (2019): Die Zukunft der Mobilität. Die Digitalisierung ist ein Gigatrend. In: Jahrbuch Schweizer Luft- und Raumfahrt 3, S. 38-39

    Abstract: Verkehr wird heute vielfach negativ wahrgenommen – Stress, Hektik, Lärm und Emissionen. 2040 wird Mobilität grüner, sicherer, automatisierter, klimaverträglicher und individueller sein. Dabei wünscht sich der Mobilitätskunde 100 prozentige Sicherheit, Pünktlichkeit und Planbarkeit sowie emissionsfreie, klimafreundliche und zeitungebundene Angebote. Zu diesen Ergebnissen kommen die Forschenden einer Studie des Center for Aviation Competence(CFAC) der Universität St. Gallen im Rahmen eines Projektes des SBB Forschungsfonds der Universität.

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  • Linden, Erik; Dorizzi, Francesco; Wittmer, Andreas (2019) : Eco-labels and their influence on consumers' decision making in the aviation sector: 23rd ATRS World Conference: Air Transport Research Society (ATRS): Amsterdam, 2.-5. Juli. Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, School of Business & Economics

    Abstract: This paper focuses on eco-labels, as an educative nudge and measures its ability to create transparency on the environmental impact of a commercial flight as well as its influence on the passengers choice making. The increasing concerns about the environment in our society led to more pro-environmental consumer behaviour. Resulting from social norms, values and beliefs people act more environmental-friendly which leads to several improvements in several industries. However, this picture is slightly different in the airlines industry, where few people want to forgo the possibility to fly. This is shown in the tremendously growing number of air passenger and the growth of new CO2 emissions, which outpaces the savings of current innovations in the aviation sector. A discrete-choice-model experiment with 202 participants measured that there is a willingness-to-pay for better ratings of eco-labelled aircraft. The respondents slightly prefer good scores for attributes that measure non-domestic impacts (e.g., total emissions of flight) to characteristics that measure domestic impacts (e.g., noise level or starting and landing emissions). In particular, respondents that have a firm intention of behaving pro-environmental choose the best ratings despite the price of the corresponding flight.

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  • Rossy, Julian; Wittmer, Andreas; Linden, Erik (2019): Rethinking Airline Business Models. Zürich: Dike Verlag (CFAC - Schriften zur Luftfahrt)

    Abstract: While some low-cost carriers such as JetBlue offer free WIFI, full-service airlines such as United are reducing their services to the bare bones. Starting from this phenomenon, called «convergence of models», this book rethinks the way business models are perceived. We propose a new customer-centric approach, leaving aside the airline-centric reflection. We broke down the four generally accepted business models – low-cost, full-service, regional and leisure – into components and patterns, resulting in a skeleton called «Airline Business Model Framework». This new Airline Business Model Framework gives a new perspective on airline business strategies. We propose a new terminology for dominant business models: no-frills, unbundlers, boutique, and connectors. Successfully tested with more than 130 carriers, the Airline Business Model Framework is a powerful tool for airlines’ employees and aviation professionals to understand their business and compare themselves to competitors.

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  • Rossy, Julian: Linden, Erik; Wittmer, Andreas (2019): New Business Model Terminology of Airlines. In: Jahrbuch Schweizer Luft- und Raumfahrt 3, S. 106-107

    Abstract: Many scholars have researched the topic of business models in the commercial aviation industry. They have revealed a phenomenon called "convergence of models": the business model of low-cost carriers goes towards full-service, and the business model of full-service carriers goes towards low-cost. A new publication of the Center for Aviation. Competence of the University of St.Gallen aims to rethink the way business models are perceived and introduces a new terminology.

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  • Wittmer, Andreas; Noto, Claudio (2019) : Time-differentiated Airport Noise Surcharges. From Economic Theory to Policy Practice In: Cullinane, Kevin: Airline Economics in Europe: Bingley: Emerald Publishing Limited (Advances in Airline Economics), S. 229-245

    DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/S2212-160920190000008010 

    Abstract: This chapter considers time-differentiated airport noise surcharges that occur in addition to general noise fees at an airport. In practice, an essential problem of such surcharges may consist of setting the price for a social policy goal, such as airport noise reduction, by shifting a number of critical flights away from sensitive times-of-day in the presence of an additional, competing economic policy goal in terms of fostering the network hub function and connectivity of that airport. In such a case, additional noise surcharges aim at balancing the socioeconomic noise costs against economic prosperity, to achieve a net benefit for society by inducing a particular airline scheduling behavior, such as shifting non-hub-relevant flights only. As a result, they differ from the well-known economic concepts for the internalization of externalities. We address this problem by offering a shift from an economic welfare view to a business administration perspective with the airlines as stakeholders, in order to describe the different rationales that need to be accounted for when searching for a pricing scheme that achieves one of the distinct steering effects in terms of airline scheduling behavior. In addition, we offer a tentative, generic guideline to determine the appropriate dimension of time-differentiated noise surcharges depending on the steering effect.

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  • Wittmer, Andreas; Marchetti, Mara (2019) : The potential of loyalty programs for leisure carriers: 23rd ATRS World Conference: Air Transport Research Society (ATRS): Amsterdam, 2.-5. Juli. Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, School of Business & Economics

    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to assess the potential of loyalty programs, which reward loyal passengers flying mainly for leisure purposes with an airline. This empirical, quantitative work includes an online survey. In total, 247 individuals participated in the enquiry. 190 respondents answered all questions completely. The whole sample consists of inflight and online surveys. A KANO approach was used to find implicit results in addition to answers on explicit questions. The results show the capability of a loyalty program to add value to the passenger experience of leisure carries. Passengers highly appreciate services like free seat reservations, surprises, additional or individualized services and collection as a group. The highest potential is seen in a loyalty program that focuses on characteristics that drive attitudinal loyalty in addition to behavioral loyalty, aiming to collect customer data and to build up an emotional relationship with the customer. The relevance lies in the question, how leisure carriers can better bind their customers. Especially leisure carriers, which operate under the roof of a large network carriers, often need to redeem miles points of customers flying on vacation with miles they collected on business trips with other partner airlines. Hence, leisure carriers have to think about how to bind customers, who actually create value to them, not to others. This research approaches this relevant issue.

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  • 2018

  • Gunziger, Philipp; Linden, Erik; Wittmer, Andreas (2018) : Das System Elektromobilität. Eine qualitatv-systemische Analyse der Einflussfaktoren auf die Elektromobilität in der Schweiz In: Laesser, Christian; Bieger, Thomas; Maggi, Rico (Hg.): Schweizer Jahrbuch für Verkehr 2018. Universität St. Gallen. Institut für Systemisches Management und Public Governance; Schweizerische Verkehrswissenschaftliche Gesellschaft: St. Gallen (Schweizer Jahrbuch für Verkehr)

    Abstract: Die vorliegende Studie untersucht Faktoren, welchen auf das Voranschreiten der Elektromobilität in der Schweiz einen Einfluss nehmen. Dazu wurde untersucht, welche Einflussfaktoren sich in fördernder oder hemmender Hinsicht auf die Elektromobilität in der Schweiz auswirken. Darüber hinaus wurde der Frage nachgegangen, welche Veränderung in Zukunft noch erfolgen müssen, um die Elektromobilität massentauglich auszugestalten. Hierfür wurde ein systemischer Ansatz nach Ulrich (1970) verfolgt, um die Komplexität und die Interdependenzen innerhalb eines vielschichtigen Konstrukts wie der Elektromobilität ganzheitlich erfassen zu können. Mithilfe des systemischen Managementansatzes «Aviation Systems» von Wittmer und Bieger (2011) wurde ein provisorisches Framework für die Elektromobilität gebildet, unter dessen Teile die Einflussfaktoren später subsumiert wurden. Zentraler Bestandteil sind die Expertenbefragungen in Form von Experteninterviews und einer Fokusgruppe, die qualitativ ausgewertet und mit der Literatur in Abgleich gebracht wurden. Die Auswertungen zeigen dass die wichtigsten Einflussfaktoren mit den CO2 Vorschriften und der Ladeinfrastruktur dem «politischen Teilsystem» der Elektromobilität zuzuordnen sind. Des Weiteren sind aus dem ökonomischen Teilsystem das beschränkte Angebot an Elektrofahrzeugen und deren hoher Kaufpreis als prioritäre Einflussfaktoren zu sehen. Ausser den CO2 Vorschriften sind die genannten Faktoren zurzeit noch hemmend für die Entwicklung der Elektromobilität, wodurch sich auch die momentan sehr tiefen Marktanteile von Elektrofahrzeugen erklären lassen. Für eine hohe Marktdurchdringung von Elektrofahrzeugen ist ein dichtes Netz an öffentlicher Ladeinfrastruktur, ebenso wie private Lademöglichkeiten essentiell. Weiter unabdingbar für die Massentauglichkeit sind eine breite Fahrzeugpalette an Elektrofahrzeugen, die unterschiedliche Segmente bedienen kann und eine Senkung der immer noch sehr hohen Verkaufspreise. Des Weiteren muss die Reichweite von Elektrofahrzeugen weiter ansteigen, nicht aber, um einen realen Reichweitenbedarf abzudecken, sondern viel mehr um der psychologischen Reichweitenangst der Konsumenten entgegenzuwirken. Der systemische Ansatz hat sich bei der Behandlung einer vielschichtigen Thematik wie der Elektromobilität als essentiell erwiesen. Nur mit einer holistischen Betrachtungsweise können sämtliche relevanten Faktoren gefunden, evaluiert und deren Auswirkungen beurteilt werden.

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  • Linden, Erik; Wittmer, Andreas (2018): Zukunft Mobilität. Gigatrend Digitalisierung  und Megatrends der Mobilität. St. Gallen. Online verfügbar unter https://cfac.unisg.ch/en/research-publications-consulting/consulting-projects/studies, zuletzt geprüft am 27.10.2021

     

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  • Linden, Erik; Bruschek, Tamara; Wittmer, Andreas (2018) : Usability of airline websites in the ticket purchasing process. An eye-tracking study of air traffic passengers: 22nd ATRS World Conference: Air Transport Research Society (ATRS): Seoul, 2.-5. Juli. The Korea Transport Institute

    Abstract: The goal of this research project was to analyze how a booking processes on airline websites can be designed more easily so that usability for the customer can be improved. Further, the authors wanted to derive possible consequences of an easier ticket purchase process for the overall design of an airline website. The model underlying this paper shows the connection between booking process design, subject behavior, perception and consequences of the customer in the ticket purchase process. In contrast to the frequently used TAM, the focus of this model lies on the booking process design as an external factor and on actual subject behavior. Through the mix of a literature review, an eye tracking research method as well as a pre- and post-survey, the actual behavior was compared to the subjective perception. Through the examination of the homepage of Swiss International Airlines, Turkish Airlines, Norwegian Airlines, and Ryanair, the authors emphasize that satisfaction of customers significantly influences the intention to reuse and the probability of WOM. The website of Turkish Airlines has proven to be not customer friendly, having a direct negative effect on the intention to reuse the website and the probability of WOM. Swiss customers were very satisfied with the usability, design and process of booking, having a direct positive effect on the intention to reuse and the probability of WOM. Despite being relatively easy to use and due to the high amount of information, the websites of Norwegian and Ryanair have proven to be very complex for customers in their design, thus having a direct negative effect on the rate of satisfaction.

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  • Wittmer, Andreas; Nachbaur, Sabrina (2018) : Booking recommendations of search engines. Danger for the airline industry?: 22nd ATRS World Conference: Air Transport Research Society (ATRS): Seoul, 2.-5. Juli. The Korea Transport Institute

    Abstract: This paper investigates the influence of search engines on the booking behavior of passengers and the airline industry. It is examined whether new functions of booking portals advising to book or to wait with respect to price changes in the future influence the booking behavior of passengers and whether the recommendations of search engines are precise. This is relevant and can become a threat to airlines with respect to ticket pricing. Therefore, an online survey was developed to collect data about booking behavior. 543 persons representing current and future users of online booking portals across all age groups in Switzerland and the surrounding boarder regions in Austria and Germany were used as a sample. In addition to the survey, an experiment to test the accuracy of booking portals was carried out. The results indicate that the booking recommendations of Kayak or Swoodoo are used by about 25% of all participants. In future usage can be estimated increase. Relations can be seen with the price sensitivity and the frequency of traveling. However, with different functions entirely different correlations were found. Overall, the survey shows that the features of the search engines can have an influence on the booking behavior of passengers. According to the experiment the portals must be assessed differently: while Google Flights was correct in all predictions, there were partial deviations for Kayak. Assuming that the portals continue to evolve and that passengers pay attention to these recommendations full service carriers need to be aware of these developments in the future.

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  • 2017

  • Linden, Erik; Wittmer, Andreas (2017): Zukünftige Bedürfnisse der Mobilitätskunden im Jahr 2040 in der Schweiz. St. Gallen. Online verfügbar unter https://www.alexandria.unisg.ch/publications/252338, zuletzt geprüft am 27.10.2021

     

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  • Linden, Erik; Feltscher, Bettino; Wittmer, Andreas (2017) : A Model for Measuring Airport Competitiveness. The Case of Zurich Airport: 21st ATRS World Conference: Air Transport Research Society (ATRS): Antwerp, 5.-8. Juli. University of Antwerp

    Abstract: This paper focuses on hub airport competition for airlines and for transfer traffic but not for origin – destination passengers. There is an ongoing discussion about airport competitiveness and factors used to measure and compare competitiveness of airports. The question raised addresses whether the competitiveness of airports can objectively be compared and which implications can be derived with respect to the case of Zurich Airport, the hub of Switzerland. Therefore, the authors develop a comprehensive model of airport competitiveness based on five main factors: environmental factors, demand factors, managerial factors, facility factors and service factors. To assess its competitiveness, Zurich Airport is compared with seven European competitors for transfer traffic. Among eight airports Zurich Airport is ranked fifth. The most competitive airport thereof turned out to be Schiphol, followed by Paris CDG, London Heathrow and Frankfurt. The results show that the competitiveness of Zurich Airport is inhibited through the strict regulations for capacity extensions, operation hours and the regulations regarding noise. As growth at Zurich Airport is limited due to capacity restrictions, it is questionable if the airport will be competitive in the future.

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  • Wittmer, Andreas; Linden, Erik (2017) : Die Zukunft der Mobilität In: Laesser, Christian; Bieger, Thomas; Maggi, Rico (Hg.): Schweizer Jahrbuch für Verkehr 2017. Universität St. Gallen. Institut für Systemisches Management und Public Governance; Schweizerische Verkehrswissenschaftliche Gesellschaft: St. Gallen (Schweizer Jahrbuch für Verkehr), S. 117-133

    Abstract: Mobilität wird durch Trends und dadurch einhergehende Veränderung der Umwelt immer komplexer und für Mobilitätsanbieter schwieriger planbar. Um dieser Komplexität Rechnung zu tragen wurden zentrale Trends der Mobilität identifiziert, Mobilitätskriterien gebildet und hiervon zwei Mobilitätsszenarien für die Zukunft der Mobilität im Jahr 2040 abgeleitet – die disruptive Digitalisierung und die konservative Demokratie. Es wurden acht Bedürfnisse von Mobilitätskunden und deren 22 Nutzentreiber als zentral identifiziert und in den beiden Szenarien überprüft, um Erkenntnisse zu den Veränderungen im Informations- und Mobilitätsverhalten von Mobilitätskunden zu gewinnen. Es konnte herausgefunden werden, dass die Mobilitätskunden komplex und divers und somit nur schwer in Kundengruppen zu ordnen sind. Ausserdem wurde ermittelt, dass sich das Informations-, Pendel- und allgemeine Mobilitätsverhalten verändern und stark an die Umwelt- bzw. Lebens- und Arbeitsbedingungen anpassen wird. Der Mobilitätskunde wünscht sich somit in Zukunft 100%-ige Sicherheit, Pünktlichkeit und Planbarkeit sowie emissionsfreie, klimafreundliche, multimodale und zeitungebundene Angebote.

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  • 2016

  • Emmenegger, Malena Haenni; Zumbusch, Kristina; Scherer, Roland; Wittmer, Andreas (2016): Arealentwicklung und Bahnzugang. Prozessuale und finanzielle Aspekte einer stärkeren Integration der beiden Themenfelder. St. Gallen (SBBLab Report). Online verfügbar unter https://www.alexandria.unisg.ch/248504/, zuletzt geprüft am 05.11.2021

     

    Abstract: Das neue Raumplanungsparadigma der Innenverdichtung trägt dazu bei, dass gut erschlossene Areale, in fussläufiger Entfernung eines Bahnhofs verstärkt entwickelt werden. Diese gewollten Entwicklungsdynamiken im Inneren eines bestehenden Siedlungsverbundes erhöhen die Auslastung der dort bereits bestehenden Infrastruktur. So entstehen bei vielen Bahnhöfen, die im Umfeld solcher Entwicklungsgebiete liegen, Kapazitätsengpässe, die kostenintensive Ausbauten erfordern. Die Studie geht der Frage nach, inwieweit die Kapazitätsfrage der erschliessenden Bahnhöfe prozessual und finanziell in die Planungen zu den Arealentwicklungen integriert werden kann. Alternative Finanzierungsmöglichkeiten für die Bahnhofsausbauten werden ausgelotet. Dabei werden insbesondere höhere Beiträge der Immobilienanrainer der entsprechenden Bahnhöfe als Nutzniesser untersucht. Hierfür wurden neben Literaturstudien und explorativen Interviews fünf Fallbeispiele (Bern-Wankdorf, Lancy-Pont Rouge, Luzern Rösslimatt, Prilly-Malley und Zürich Hardbrücke) empirisch analysiert und entsprechende Schlussfolgerungen im Rahmen einer Online-Umfrage in breitem Kreise reflektiert. Die Studie wurde im Rahmen des SBB-Forschungsfonds finanziert.

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  • Wittmer, Andreas; Daum, Sebastian (2016): Multidimensional Decision Behavior in Air Transport. Zürich: Dike Verlag (CFAC - Schriften zur Luftfahrt)

    Abstract: Air transport customers do not always behave economically rational, when making their transport decisions. Irrational decision making by customers implies that economically driven models do not explain consumer choice precisely. They miss out on soft decision factors, which are difficult to quantitatively measure and may make up to half of a decision models variables. Customers are in search of well-being when they travel. This is especially the case for Swiss travellers buying annual general tickets on first class with ground transport or for business class travellers of airlines. The buying decision process is influenced by reasonable, economically irrational decision factors such as well-being, recreation, flexibility and freedom, etc. Economy and “second” class travellers have become more rational decision makers over time focusing mainly on price and ancillary costs of their consumption. They focus on the basic transport service as the product and maximize their personal utility.

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  • Wittmer, Andreas; Hinnen, Gieri (2016) : Airline passengers In: Budd, Lucy; Ison, Stephen (Hg.): Air Transport Management: An International Perspective: 1st Edition: London: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, S. 139-149, zuletzt geprüft am

    Abstract: Psychographic segmentation focuses on trip motivation, engagements, values, attitudes, interests, opinions, personality, behaviour and lifestyle characteristics. These characteristics might indicate why a specific product category is preferred but not why a specific product was chosen. The biggest challenge with psychographic segmentation is that these criteria are often more difficult to measure than demographic segmentation criteria. Psychographic variables include: trip motivation: the reason for travelling, such as business or leisure; destination; length of flight: short-or long-haul; length of total time away from home; travel class: economy, economy plus, business or first class; travel experience: frequency of flying; cultural background of the passenger; airline preference. This may be based on the business model of the airline (such as a full service, low cost, or charter), its perceived safety and service standards, its brand value and reputation (high quality or low cost), its cultural resonance and familiarity to the passenger, and whether or not it belongs to a global airline alliance; membership of an airline or airline alliance loyalty programme, account balance and status level; seat preference (whether for a particular seat, an extra-legroom seat, an aisle seat or a seat in a child-free quiet zone); environmental considerations: age of the aircraft and the airline’s environmental credentials.

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  • Wittmer, Andreas (2016): Entwicklung und Rahmenbedingungen der Luftfahrt. 1. Schweizer Aviatik Symposium. Flughafen Zürich. Kloten, 7. April, 2016. Online verfügbar unter https://aviatiksymposium.ch/index.php/symposium-2016/referenten/dr-andreas-wittmer, zuletzt geprüft am 17.11.2021

     

    Abstract: Die Präsentation des Vortrages, welcher Dr. Andreas Wittmer am 1. Schweizer Aviatik Symposium gehalten hat. Dabei hat Dr. Andreas Wittmer aufgezeigt, dass die Hauptkonkurrenz für den europäischen Luftfahrtmarkt aus dem Mittleren Osten kommt. Wenn Europa dagegenhalten möchte, müssen die Rahmenbedingungen überdenkt werden.

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  • Wittmer, Andreas (2016): Luftfahrt heute und morgen. 10-Jahre Jubiläum: CFAC-HSG. Universität St. Gallen. Center for Aviation Competence. Flughafen Zürich. Kloten, 17. August, 2016. Online verfügbar unter https://www.alexandria.unisg.ch/publications/249368, zuletzt geprüft am 17.11.2021

     

    Abstract: Luftfahrt heute und morgen - die Präsentation zu dem Vortrag, welcher Dr. Andreas Wittmer am 10-Jahre Jubiläum des CFACs gehalten hat. Bei diesem Vortrag hat Dr. Andreas Wittmer die Kapazitätsprobleme und die hinderlichen globalen Rahmenbedingungen angesprochen und erläutert, weshalb das Zulassen von Innovationen unabdingbar ist.

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  • Wittmer, Andreas (2016): Regionalflugplätze und deren Wirkung auf das Luftfahrtsystem und die Volkswirtschaft der Schweiz. Die regionalen Flugplätze der Schweiz: die stillen und unverzichtbaren Partner der Wirtschaft. Bern, 27. September, 2016. Online verfügbar unter https://www.alexandria.unisg.ch/publications/249369, zuletzt geprüft am 17.11.2021

     

    Abstract: Die Präsentation des Vortrages, welcher Dr. Andreas Wittmer am Anlass der Parlamentarischen Gruppe Luft- und Raumfahrt PGLR am 27.9.2016 gehalten hat. Der Titel des Anlasses lautete: "Die regionalen Flugplätze der Schweiz: die stillen und unverzichtbaren Partner der Wirtschaft". In seinem Vortrag hat Dr. Andreas Wittmer die volkswirtschaftliche Bedeutung von Regionalflugplätzen aufgezeigt sowie deren Herausforderungen und Perspektiven erläutert.

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  • Wittmer, Andreas; Daum, Sebastian (2016) : The Concept of Well-being and Its Effect on Airline Ticket Purchasing: 20st ATRS World Conference: Air Transport Research Society World Conference: Rhodes, Griechenland, 23.-26. Juni

    Abstract: For very long time questions on and about well-being were discussed by several authors and are still present in recent literature. Although well-being research has grown increasingly within the last decade and in the field of consumer behavior, a transfer and use of its concept into the airline ticket purchasing process cannot be found. Until now, only a few authors have taken efforts to apply well-being as a potential factor within the consumer decision-making in travel and transportation research. Based on the theoretical roots of well-being, this paper analyses its constitution, function and use within human behavioral motivation to first describe and define well-being in general and second to investigate potential well-being factors that can be used within the airline ticket purchasing process. By combining a review of relevant literature and qualitative research, well-being is defined as a condition or state of good, positive and pleasant feelings and a general feeling of happiness. It is mainly constituted by six major attributes: Positive social environment, being relaxation, freedom, trust, good feeling and myself. The transfer of general well-being factors from travel and transportation research identified seven aviation factors that supposedly affect passengers’ ticket purchases. These key factors are linked to specific airline options and are further specified in order to test the most appropriate on their effect within the airline ticket purchasing process. In the end, a conjoint analysis reveals that the derived well-being factors are only partly relevant for passengers’ ticket purchases. Yet, it is shown that air travelling is affected by hedonic well-being options, such as comfort, relaxation or joy. Airlines that focus on implementing effective hedonic.

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  • Wittmer, Andreas; Daum, Sebastian (2016) : The concept of well-being and its effect on airline ticket purchasing: 66th AIEST Conference: International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism Conference: Malta, 28. August - 1. September

    Abstract: From the very beginning questions on and about well-being were discussed by several authors and are still very present in recent literature. Although well-being research has grown increasingly within the last decade and in the field of consumer behaviour, a transfer and use of its concept into the airline ticket purchasing process cannot be found. Until now, only a few authors have taken efforts to apply well-being as a potential factor within the consumer decision-making in travel and transportation research. Based on the theoretical roots of well-being, this thesis analyses its constitution, function and use within human behavioural motivation to first describe and define well-being in general and second to investigate potential well-being factors that can be used within the airline ticket purchasing process. By combining a review of relevant literature and qualitative research, well-being is defined as a condition or state of good, positive and pleasant feelings and a general feeling of happiness. It is mainly constituted by six major attributes: Positive social environment, being myself, relaxation, freedom, trust and good feeling. The transfer of general well-being factors from travel and transportation research identified seven aviation factors that supposedly impact passengers’ ticket purchases. These key factors are linked to specific airline options and are further specified in order to test the most appropriate on their effect within the airline ticket purchasing process. In the end, a conjoint analysis reveals that the derived well-being factors are only partly relevant for passengers’ ticket purchases. Yet, it is shown that air travelling is affected by hedonic well-being options, such as comfort, relaxation or joy. Airlines that focus on implementing effective hedonic well-being factors, such as seat comfort and ticket flexibility, can thus create additional value for customers through the creation of well-being.

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  • 2015

  • Ammann, Matthias; Bartl, Daniel; Beritelli, Pietro; Demaj, Labinot; Grand, Simon; Laesser, Christian; Reinhold, Stephan; Rüegg-Stürm, Johannes; Schedler, Kuno; Scherer, Roland; Sonderegger, Roger W.; Stücheli-Herlach, Peter; Tuckermann, Harald; Zumbusch, Kristina; Zwicker-Schwarm, Daniel; Wittmer, Andreas (2015): IMPacts: Wirkung. St. Gallen

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  • Beritelli, Pietro; Bieger, Thomas; Laesser, Christian; Wittmer, Andreas (2015) : Challenging ‘Common Knowledge’ in Tourism. A Partial Polemic In: Pechlaner, Harald; Smeral, Egon (Hg.): Tourism and Leisure: Current Issues and Perspectives of Development: Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden, S. 22-38. Online verfügbar unter https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-06660-4_2, zuletzt geprüft am 29.10.2021

     

    Abstract: Tourism research as well as practice is very heterogeneous, due to its different cultural roots and dominant business patterns. Despite this heterogeneity, dominant intellectual avenues in a number of domains have emerged. As a result, we today are essentially stuck in a sort of trenches. In our paper, we try to identify some of those intellectual trenches and call for/ propose ways to get out of them. They include, among others, topics related to consumer behaviour, destination management, and sustainable tourism. Although we try to provide evidence for our claims, we might appear polemic at times, as we intend to provide contentious arguments about sometimes very controversial topics.

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  • Hinnen, Gieri; Hille, Stefanie Lena; Wittmer, Andreas (2015): Willingness to Pay for Green Products in Air Travel. Ready for Take-Off?. In: Business Strategy and the Environment 26 (2), S. 197-208. Online verfügbar unter https://doi.org/10.1002/bse.1909, zuletzt geprüft am 22.10.2021

     

    Abstract: We examine the willingness to pay (WTP) for green products in air travel. Green products in aviation are supplementary services, which are sold on top of the travel service (e.g. carbon offsets, organic on-board food). We identify a set of potential green products in aviation and report the preferences for additional airline services of 811 Swiss air travellers using an adaptive choice-based conjoint survey. We find that 20% of those passengers who are interested in purchasing supplementary services show a considerable WTP for green products. The green segment differs from the regular segment only in terms of behavioural features, not in terms of demographic or socio-economic characteristics.

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  • Maurer, Thalissa; Wittmer, Andreas (2015) : Airport loyalty programs: 19th ATRS World Conference: Air Transport Research Society World Conference: Singapur, 2.-5. Juli

    Abstract: Airports are operating in two sided markets. On one side are the airlines, which airports fight for in a competitive market. On the other side are passengers within the catchment area of the airports. Furthermore, there are transfer travelers, which choose their itinerary partly based on the attractiveness and efficiency of transfer airports. Hence, airports aim at being an attractive place for travelers and by this for airlines. For increasing competitiveness, especially secondary airports, but partly also primary hubs have established customer loyalty programs. The aim of this paper is to compare several of such programs, which European Airports offer. A passenger survey provides a ranking of service attributes, which are attractive for travelers as benefits from airport loyalty programs. The results of the study provide indications for secondary airports in Europe, which consider their competitiveness by introducing an airport loyalty program.

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  • Schosser, Maximilian; Wittmer, Andreas (2015): Cost and revenue synergies in airline mergers. Examining geographical differences. In: Journal of Air Transport Management 47, S. 142-153. Online verfügbar unter https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jairtraman.2015.05.004, zuletzt geprüft am 22.10.2021

     

    Abstract: Deregulation, privatization and shifting demand patterns in the airline industry, combined with the emergence of low-cost airlines and rising fuel prices have increased the competitive pressure on legacy airlines. Since alliances do not deliver sufficient benefits to counterbalance these trends, many airlines have engaged in mergers to seek for additional cost and revenue synergies. An extent body of literature investigates the synergy potential in mergers and alliances, but there is no study on how synergies differ among mergers and what potential influence factors cause these differences. This paper aims at explaining differences in synergy estimates and realized synergies in recent airline mergers and places a special focus on geographical influence factors. The research methodology uses a comparative case study comprising six large airline mergers between 2003 and 2012 from Europe, North America and Latin America. After analyzing the cases individually, the pre-merger situation of the merging airlines, the synergy estimates and the realized synergies of the cases were compared. The results show considerable geographical differences in pre-merger cost structures, synergy estimates, and synergy realization. The European mergers present lower synergy estimates but also lower integration costs than mergers in the Americas. Whereas European airlines estimate cost synergies higher than revenue synergies, both North and Latin American airlines expect more revenue synergies than cost synergies from airline mergers. Only one merger showed superior post-merger profitability which indicates that the achieved synergies in the broad majority of the cases are insignificant.

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  • Wittmer, Andreas; Moser, Roger (2015): Die Zukunft der Schweizer Luftfahrtindustrie 2020. Eine Analyse des CfAC-HSG in Zusammenarbeit mit dem ACC-HSG an der Universität St.Gallen. St. Gallen

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  • Wittmer, Andreas (2015): Kooperationen in der Luft- und Raumfahrtindustrie. In: IMPacts (10). Online verfügbar unter https://imp.unisg.ch/ueber-uns/publikationen, zuletzt geprüft am 12.11.2021

     

    Abstract: Das Swiss Aerospace Cluster, das Center for Aviation Competence der Universität St. Gallen und das Institute für Geodäsie und Fotogrammmetrie der ETH Zürich haben in den letzten drei Jahren intensiv am TransNetAero Projekt gearbeitet. Das Projekt kam per Ende 2015 zum Abschluss. Im Rahmen dieses Projekts haben die Schweizer Partner mit je einem Partner aus England, Deutschland, Frankreich, Belgien und Holland zusammengearbeitet.

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  • Wittmer, Andreas; Bott, Gian Andrea (2015) : Explicit and implicit customer satisfaction factors in the leisure airline business: 65th AIEST Conference: International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism Conference: Lijiang, China, 23.-27. August

    Abstract: One of the main challenges for airlines is to retain loyal customers in a very competitive environment. Loyal customers offer a greater share of wallet, require less marketing effort, spread positive word of mouth and are often less price sensitive. Consequently, the objective of this paper is to understand what the key leisure airline loyalty factors are and how the leisure airline could design their product to retain as many loyal leisure passengers as possible. Hence, we develop a framework based on the customer value model which can serve as guidance for airline managers focusing on the leisure air market. To find satisfaction factors, a literature review followed by a means-end analysis to update the satisfaction factor database were conducted. The satisfaction factors were then tested in a survey including explicit and implicit questions with 402 air passengers at Zurich Airport in 2014. Based on stated preferences 21 identified factors were ranked. By using the Kano approach ten main aggregated attributes were identified and the potential implicit satisfaction impact was measured.

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  • 2014

  • Bieger, Thomas; Wittmer, Andreas (2014): Konsequenzen des Wachstums der Golf-Carrier für Europa und die Schweiz. In: IMPacts (07)

    Abstract: Die Airlines aus dem Mittleren Osten (Emirates, Etihad, Qatar) verfolgen eine konsequente Wachstumsstrategie und dringen verstärkt in den europäischen Markt ein. Mit optimalen Rahmenbedingungen und einer idealen geographischen Lage zwischen Europa und den Wachstumsregionen in Asien könne sie zu tieferen Kosten und damit günstigeren Preisen arbeiten. Dadurch geraten europäische Airlines unter Druck.

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  • Wittmer, Andreas; Riegler, Barbara (2014): Purchasing a general ticket for public transport. A means end approach. In: Travel Behaviour and Society 1 (3), S. 106-112. Online verfügbar unter https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tbs.2014.05.001, zuletzt geprüft am 22.10.2021

     

    Abstract: Switzerland offers a dense network of public transport means. The Swiss General Ticket (GT) is a popular travel pass, which allows the use of most of the public transport facilities in Switzerland. The buying behavior for public transport general tickets underlies a complex decision process. Public transport customers can deal with the complexity in two ways: either one decides on choice heuristics according to ones rather emotional beliefs or decides systematically based on a rational price comparison. Judgment and decision theory creates the basis for the discussion of heuristic versus systematic decision-making in this paper. The goal of the study is the explanation of the two consumer typologies when buying a GT along the continuum from more heuristically to systematically made decisions. Drivers for a more heuristically based as opposed to a systematically based decision process, taking into consideration endogenous and exogenous factors, are evaluated. Literature provides some relevant heuristic and systematic decision factors. Primary research with railway customers in Switzerland (research panel) was conducted using an exploratory, semi-standardized approach using the laddering technique, which helps to identify relevant factors involved in the buying decision process. Functional attributes, which were put into context of higher-level personal values using the means-end approach, were detected. These functional attributes are the ones influencing a buying decision. Results show that convenience factors have a high influence when it comes to purchasing a season ticket, but price is the crucial factor behind the final purchase decision.

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  • Wittmer, Andreas; Rowley, Edward (2014): Customer value of purchasable supplementary services. The case of a European full network carrier's economy class. In: Journal of Air Transport Management 34, S. 17-23. Online verfügbar unter https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jairtraman.2013.07.002, zuletzt geprüft am 22.10.2021

     

    Abstract: There is a general trend in the airline industry to try to find ways to generate ancillary revenue by offering additional or unbundled services. Low-cost carriers in particular are known to offer unbundled services, but only a few network carriers have started to unbundle their services and seek ancillary revenues. Meanwhile, others do not attempt this, due to a possible negative impact on customer perception and their brand image. The goal of this study is to determine the viability and customer value of purchasable supplementary services for economy class passengers of European full-service network carriers. The focus of the study lies in determining specific characteristics of the customer value concept in the context of purchasable supplementary services. By conducting a choice model the implicit preferences in regard to purchasable supplementary service of economy class passengers were analysed. A survey was conducted at Zurich Airport in Switzerland and the results and analysis were built on the data of 249 respondents. The results show that economy class passengers do perceive value in purchasable supplementary services and display a general intention to purchase such services provided they give the passenger added value and utility.

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  • Wittmer, Andreas; Drax, Christopher (2014) : Study of the Level of Risk and Safety Management System Implementation in Practice In: Müller, Roland; Wittmer, Andreas; Drax, Christopher (Hg.): Aviation Risk and Safety Management: Methods and Applications in Aviation Organizations: Cham: Springer International Publishing, S. 85-93. Online verfügbar unter https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-02780-7_9, zuletzt geprüft am 22.10.2021

     

    Abstract: The presented risk management survey was conducted in winter 2012/13 with the aim to gain an insight into corporate risk management procedures, and the level of implementation of such procedures in aviation companies and organizations. The survey was set up online and was distributed among small, medium and large Swiss enterprises in the aviation industry. A sample of 27 companies participated in the survey. This is a small sample which allows an insight into the implementation level of Risk Management, but does not provide statistically significant and completely representative conclusions. The examination of the topic follows a qualitative research approach and the findings meet the expectations of the researchers, providing a valid base for discussion and further research.

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  • Wittmer, Andreas (2014) : Costs and Benefits of Risk Management In: Müller, Roland; Wittmer, Andreas; Drax, Christopher (Hg.): Aviation Risk and Safety Management: Methods and Applications in Aviation Organizations: Cham: Springer International Publishing, S. 57-71. Online verfügbar unter https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-02780-7_6, zuletzt geprüft am 22.10.2021

     

    Abstract: This chapter provides an overview of: Different sources of risk from a microeconomic perspective The conflicting nature of risk perception: managers vs. shareholders Different risk perceptions of shareholders and stakeholders Systemic risk in network industries Implications of risk management on an operational level The cost and benefits of implementation and optimization of risk management for the company.

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  • Wittmer, Andreas (2014): Kundenanforderungen, Nachhaltigkeit und Rahmenbedingungen. Ihr Einfluss auf die globale Luftfahrtentwicklung. Universität Stuttgart. Stuttgart, 14. November, 2014. Online verfügbar unter https://www.alexandria.unisg.ch/publications/239091, zuletzt geprüft am 09.11.2021

     

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  • Wittmer, Andreas; Oberlin, Nicole (2014) : Ancillary revenue pricing: 18th ATRS World Conference: Air Transport Research Society World Conference: Bordeaux, 17.-20. Juli

    Abstract: The airline industry has evolved from a system of long-established state owned carriers operating in a regular market to a dynamic, deregulated industry. This development - especially the emerging competition of Low Cost Carriers - had a major influence on the price setting behavior of airlines. Profitability of airlines is limited and pricing systems are reconsidered. In order to stay competitive traditional full service carriers consider the implementation of ancillary revenue systems (similar to Low Cost Carriers). This paper investigates challenges of an ancillary revenue pricing approach for full service network carriers. A qualitative means-end approach was used to find attributes which are of importance for air passengers and influence their ticket buying behavior. In addition, the study provides an insight into the perception of an ancillary revenue system in the full service network carrier market. The findings provide 18 ticket purchase attributes and 15 behavioral terminal values shown in hierarchical value maps. Based on those values it became evident that most passengers appreciate if some services are included in the price and not offered as ancillaries. Benefits of ancillary revenue systems are the individual ticket creation, customization, improved price-performance ratio, flexibility gains and progressive idea. Main drawbacks are complicate and complex booking process, feeling of uncertainty, branding problem, deformation of competitive behavior, similar system like Low Cost Carriers, feeling of paying extra for every service, perceived loss in service and quality.

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  • Wittmer, Andreas; Wolffson, Jannik (2014) : Customer value of the first class product on long-haul flights. A Kano Analysis: 64th AIEST Conference: International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism Conference: Plzen, Tschechien, 24.-28. August

    Abstract: Throughout the last years, airlines reduced first class capacities on long-haul flights or even completely cut their long-haul first class offers (Nicas, 2012). Due to a reduction in demand (IATA, 2010), many premium airlines struggled to afford a top premium offer. The goal of this study is to investigate the customer value of a long-haul flight in first class cabin. Hereby, the focus lies in identifying drivers for customer satisfaction and to analyse if there are differences in experience of satisfaction among different customer groups. By conducting a means end analysis, customers’ motivation and values were determined. Based on these results, a Kano analysis was designed. The survey was conducted online among more than 100 participants who regularly travel business and first class. The results show that current first class products do provide attributes that foster satisfaction. Customers perceive certain attributes differently not only according to their product aware-ness but also in relation to monetary versus status voucher or miles payment.

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  • 2013

  • Bieger, Thomas; Wittmer, Andreas (2013): Helvetische Luftfahrtpolitik aus einem Guss. In Zürich müssen der Flughafen und die Swiss bessern kooperieren. In: Neue Zürcher Zeitung (NZZ), 2013 (Nr. 195, 24. August)

    Abstract: Meinungsverschiedenheiten zwischen dem Flughafen Zürich und der Swiss kommen immer wieder an die Öffentlichkeit. Eine gemeinsame Kultur scheint zurzeit nicht gelebt zu werden.

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  • Riegler, Barbara; Wittmer, Andreas (2013): Frei sein mit dem Generalabonnement des öffentlichen Verkehrs. In: IMPacts (05)

    Abstract: Der Kauf eines Generalabonnements (GA) des öffentlichen Verkehrs der Schweiz schafft nicht nur einen Nutzen durch freie Fahrt auf den öffentlichen Verkehrsmitteln, es vereinfacht vor allem den Reiseprozess und erzeugt damit ein Freiheitsgefühl. Dieses Freiheitsgefühl führt zu einer überdurchschnittlichen Zahlungsbereitschaft, welche über eine emotionale Ebene entsteht.

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  • Scherer, Roland; Wittmer, Andreas (2013): Grenzüberschreitende wirtschaftliche Verflechtungen im Metropolitanraum Zürich. In: IMPacts (05)

    Abstract: Mit der vorliegenden Studie wird die wirtschaftliche „Sogwirkung“ des Metropolitanraums Zürich bis über die deutsch-schweizerische Grenze in den südbadischen Raum beurteilt. Die grenzüberschreitende Verflechtung wurde auf der Basis verschiedener wirtschaftlicher Funktionen untersucht. Bei den Wirkungsfeldern wird unterschieden zwischen tangiblen Wirkungen, bei denen sich die grenzüberschreitenden Beziehungen für die südbadische Seite monetarisieren liessen, und intangiblen Wirkungen, die sich langfristig aus der Nutzung der Metropolfunktionen Zürichs für Südbaden ergeben können.

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  • Wittmer, Andreas (2013): TransNetAero. North West Europe Programme. Bern (ARE Newsletter)

     

    Abstract: Projektnews - Das Swiss Aerospace Cluster arbeitet zusammen mit der ETH Zürich, der Hochschule Luzern und dem Center for Aviation Competence der Universität St.Gallen am Interregprojekt TransNetAero. Es handelt sich um ein internationales Projekt mit je einem Partner in England, Deutschland, Frankreich, Belgien, Holland und uns in der Schweiz.

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  • Wittmer, Andreas; Scherer, Roland; Brunett, Flurina; Riser, Adrian; Eisenkopf, Alexander (2013): Die Bedeutung des Metropolitanraums Zürich für Südbaden. St. Gallen. Online verfügbar unter https://www.alexandria.unisg.ch/publications/225664, zuletzt geprüft am 12.11.2021

     

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  • Wittmer, Andreas (2013): Die Luft- und Raumfahrtbranche der Schweiz. Ein Überblick. In: Leader (1)

    Abstract: Aerospace ist ein vitaler Sektor der Wirtschaft und der Gesellschaft. Es ist ein Sektor, in dem sowohl öffentliche als auch private Organisationen und Unternehmen weltweit führend sind und gesellschaftliche Bedürfnisse der Mobilität decken.

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  • Wittmer, Andreas; Riegler, Barbara (2013): Wohlbefinden als Schlüsselfaktor beim Erwerb des Generalabonnements. In: IMPacts (06)

    Abstract: Das Generalabonnement (GA) des öffentlichen Verkehrs erlaubt im Gültigkeitszeitraum die Benutzung des Grossteils des öffentlichen Verkehrsnetzwerkes in der Schweiz. Neben der Beförderungsleistung bietet das GA eine Vielzahl an Zusatzleistungen und Ermässigungen.

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  • Wittmer, Andreas (2013) : Customer Value of Airport Security Services: 17th ATRS World Conference: Air Transport Research Society World Conference: Bergamo, 26.-29. Juni

    Abstract: Service quality of airports is evaluated by several studies on a regular basis (ACI, Skytrax, ATRS). Many studies do not or only partly include airport security and border control services as quality drivers of passengers' airport experience. Reasons are that security and border control services are mostly handled by governmental organizations or external security companies rather than by the airports themselves. From a passenger perspective security and border control are steps of the service chain at airports and they can have an impact on travelers' first perception of service culture in a destination. They belong to the procedure at the airport and can have an impact on airport service quality perception. Furthermore, as border control and security checks are the first and last interaction point of travelers with a destination, there might be an impact on the feelings and memories of travelers about a country. Therefore the underlying study focuses on customer value provided by security and border control services at airports and its impacts on passengers' quality perception of the airport and the destination. The results show that most of the participants do not see a relation between the performance of an airport at security check and border control and the service culture of the destination they travel to. There are no specific expectations concerning the treatment at security and border control at the airport. But on one hand the passengers expect more friendly staff and more information about the procedure and what they are allowed to take into the secure area of the airport. On the other hand, the security checks are perceived as strict and some rules and behaviors of security staff are not understandable. Sometimes Passengers do not feel fairly treated by the security department. Passengers feel that they are seen as a potential threat. Passengers think that the treatment in Europe is generally more friendly than in the United States.

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  • Wittmer, Andreas; Riegler, Barbara (2013) : Purchasing a General Ticket. A Means End Approach: 13th WCTRS: World Conference of Transport Research: Rio de Janeiro, Brasilien, 15.-18. Juli

    Abstract: Consumer behavior or decision making by consumer can be viewed from different perspectives. In the case of the underlying study judgment and decision theory and systematic versus heuristic decision making build bases for the research discussion. The buying behavior of season tickets underlies a complex decision process. The railway customer can deal with complexity in two ways. Either he decides on the based on heuristics of his rather emotional beliefs or systematic based on a rational calculation. The goal of the study is the explanation of the two consumer typologies when buying seasonal tickets along the continuum from rather heuristically to systematically made decisions. Drivers for a rather heuristically based vs. a systematically based decision process under consideration of endogenous and exogenous factors and the willingness to pay are evaluated. Literature review is used to find relevant heuristic and systematic decision factors. Further expert interviews verify those factors. Primary research with railway customers in Switzerland is conducted using implicit and explicit research methods to find the relevance of factors influencing a buying decision. Results show the decision process of rail season ticket customers. It is shown that convenience factors have a greater impact on season ticket sales than systematic factors. Furthermore, it is shown that customers who base their buying decisions on heuristic convenience factors rather than systematic price calculations are less price sensitive. Elements of customer benefits have come out of the research. From those benefits factors which make rail travels more valuable will be derived. The knowledge of the impact of heuristic and systematic factors on the buying decision of seasonal railway tickets allows an explanation of willingness to pay for those tickets.

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  • Wittmer, Andreas (2013) : Monitoring Aviation Data. The Monitor System: 13th WCTRS: World Conference of Transport Research: Rio de Janeiro, Brasilien, 15.-18. Juli

    Abstract: The main intention in connection with the Monitor project was to design, plan and realise a monitoring system that is capable of continuously describing and evaluating long-term trends and challenges within the air transport sector. The following objectives were addressed by the project: - Gaining a better understanding of the dynamic nature of developments in air transport and the behaviour of the different actors within the aviation system. - Balancing economic interests, ecological constraints and social needs (sustainability approach). - Generating input for scenario modelling and quantification exercises linked to ACARE Vision 2020+, EUROCONTROL's "Long Term Forecast", JTI Clean Sky Technology Evaluator. - Identifying necessary conditions for aviation growth in the field of technology development and within the macro and socio-economic framework. As a strong orientation on the requirements and needs of aviation stakeholders was regarded as an important prerequisite for this task, an advisory committee of aviation experts was established at a very early stage of the project in order to secure that an external view is included. Together with the outcome of an experts' survey, the project objectives and the expected results could then be defined in more detail. Given this work process, the final components of the monitoring system were designed and oriented on three pillars which were seen as essential to address the monitoring function linked to the project. The monitoring system produced a flexible and upgradeable system that is capable of a permanent scanning and assessing of trends with relevance for the aviation sector. The broad focus of the monitoring system covers many important aspects from different perspectives. The results of the project are a meta-database on the major aviation issues, an indicator set providing a structure for monitoring the aviation industry and future air transport trends and scenarios. Three pillars (Database on Data sources, Indicator System, Future Trends and Scenarios) of the monitoring system were combined and implemented on a webpage (www.airtransport-monitor.eu). On the basis of different indicators it is possible to compare different data from different sources.

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  • Wittmer, Andreas; Rowley, Edward (2013) : Customer value of purchasable supplementary services: 63rd AIEST Conference: International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism Conference: Izmir, Türkei, 25.-29. Juni

    Abstract: There is a general trend in the airline industry to find ways to generate ancillary revenue by offering additional or unbundled services. Especially low cost carriers are known to unbundle their services, however, in contrast only some network carriers started to unbundle their services and gain ancillary revenues, others do not due to a possible negative impact on customer perception and their brand image. The goal of this study is to determine viability and customer value of purchasable supplementary services for economy class passengers of European full-service network carriers. The focus of the study lies in determining specific characteristics of the customer value concept in the context of purchasable supplementary services. Additionally, knowledge about the unbundling of existing services, the introduction of new additional services, and the packaging of purchasable supplementary services is gained in order to determine the feasibility of implementing such measures. Using a customer value hierarchy to formulate the economy class passenger's desired attributes of purchasable supplementary services, a framework was built as a base for the research. Furthermore, a choice-based conjoint analysis was used to determine the implicit preferences in regard to purchasable supplementary service of economy class passengers. A survey was conducted at Zurich Airport in Switzerland and the results and analysis were built on the data of 249 respondents. The results show that economy class passengers do perceive value in purchasable supplementary services and display a general intention to purchase such services as long as they provide the passenger with added value and utility.

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  • 2012

  • Beritelli, Pietro; Laesser, Christian; Wittmer, Andreas (2012) : DMOs bridging structural holes in destination networks. A perspective based on actor's networks: 62nd AIEST Conference